Terabyte, Petabyte, Exabyte, Zettabyte & Petaflop

Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte, Exabyte, Zettabyte & Petaflop

Computer storage and memory is often measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB). A medium-sized novel contains about 1MB of information. 1MB is 1,024 kilobytes, or 1,048,576 (1024×1024) bytes, not one million bytes.

Unit  Equivalent
1 kilobyte (KB)  1,024 bytes
1 megabyte (MB)  1,048,576 bytes
1 gigabyte (GB)  1,073,741,824 bytes
1 terabyte (TB)  1,099,511,627,776 bytes
1 petabyte (PB)  1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes

Similarly,
1 GB is 1,024MB, or 1,073,741,824 (1024x1024x1024) bytes.
A terabyte (TB) is 1,024GB; 1TB is about the same amount of information as all of the books in a large library, or roughly 1,610 CDs worth of data.
A petabyte (PB) is 1,024TB. Indiana University – USA is now building storage systems capable of holding petabytes of data.
An exabyte (EB) is 1,024PB.
A zettabyte (ZB) is 1,024EB.

Finally, a yottabyte (YB) is 1,024ZB, however, in a binary system, 10GB is 10,737,418,240 bytes. WOW

Top 10 are
Nebulae at China’s National Supercomputing Center in Shenzen (1.27 petaflop/s),
Tsubame 2.0 at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (1.19 petaflop/s),
Cielo at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico (1.11 petaflop/s),
Pleiades at the NASA Ames Research Center in California (1.09 petaflop/s),
Hopper at DOE’s National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) in California (1.054 petaflop/s),
Tera 100 at the CEA (Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives) in France (1.05 petaflop/s),
and Roadrunner at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico (1.04 petaflop/s).

World Best Computer:

1. Riken, Japan                                                                                    8773 teraflops
2. National Supercomputing Center Tianjin, Kina               4701 teraflops
3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA                                   2331 teraflops
4.  National SuperComputing, Shenshen, Kina                      2984 teraflops
5 Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan                                  2287 teraflops
6. Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA                               1365 teraflops
7. NASA, USA                                                                                      1315 teraflops
8. Nersc, USA                                                                                      1288 teraflops
31. KTH, Sweden                                                                                  305  teraflops

The New Number One
The K Computer, built by Fujitsu – (my employer), currently combines 68544 SPARC64 VIIIfx CPUs, each with eight cores, for a total of 548,352 cores—almost twice as many as any other system in the TOP500. The K Computer is also more powerful than the next five systems on the list combined.

The K Computer’s name draws upon the Japanese word “Kei” for 10^16 (ten quadrillions), representing the system’s performance goal of 10 petaflops. RIKEN is the Institute for Physical and Chemical Research. Unlike the Chinese system it displaced from the No. 1 slot and other recent very large system, the K Computer does not use graphics processors or other accelerators. The K Computer is also one of the most energy-efficient systems on the list.

Khan – sql dba

MCTS

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